People who qualify for Medicare and Medicaid on the basis of a combination of low-income status and age, disability, or end-stage renal disease, also known as dual eligibles, remain a focus of research and policy making because of their complex insurance coverage and high health care costs. Nationally, there are approximately twelve million dual eligibles: approximately nine million with full Medicaid (which covers Medicare’s out-of-pocket costs and services such as long-term care) and three million with partial Medicaid (which covers the Medicare Part B premium and, in some cases, cost sharing). Although dual eligibles only represent 19 percent of Medicare enrollees and 14 percent of Medicaid enrollees, they account for 34 percent and 30 percent of Medicare and Medicaid spending, respectively. This is because dual eligibles are socially and medically at risk and, thus, have costly and complex health care needs. More than two-thirds of dual eligibles have three or more chronic conditions, 41 percent have a behavioral health disorder, and 46 percent are Black, Hispanic, or other people of color.